As the opioid epidemic in the United States continues, HHS announced a group of new actions to build on the HHS Opioid Initiative–which focuses on (1) improving opioid prescribing practices; (2) expanding access to medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorder; and (3) increasing the use of naloxone to reverse opioid overdoses–and the National Pain Strategy, the federal government’s first coordinated plan to reduce the burden of chronic pain in the U.S.
The new actions include a Final rule expanding access to buprenorphine, a medication to treat opioid use disorder, and other MATs. HHS also launched more than a dozen new scientific studies on opioid misuse and pain treatment and soliciting feedback to improve and expand prescriber education and training programs. The department took other steps on opioids in response to physician concerns about financial incentives to prescribe the drugs.
MAT Final rule
In a Final rule (81 FR 44712, July 8, 2016), the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) took action allowing more patients to receive buprenorphine prescriptions each year. Practitioners must have a waiver to prescribe buprenorphine–to be eligible for the waiver, the practitioner must have additional credentialing in addiction medicine or addiction psychiatry from a specialty medical board and/or professional society, or practice in a qualified setting. Under the waiver, the number of patients to whom they may prescribe the MAT is limited annually; under the Final rule, practitioners who have had a waiver to prescribe buprenorphine for up to 100 patients for one year or more, may now obtain a waiver to treat up to 275 patients. A supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking (81 FR 44576, July 8, 2016) asked for input on increasing the highest patient limit for qualified physicians to treat opioid use disorder under the Controlled Substances Act to 275. The proposal would help assure compliance with the MAT Final rule by adding reporting requirements for MAT prescribers.
Opioid misuse research and training
According to a request for information (81 FR 44640, July 8, 2016), deaths related to opioid analgesic–a class of prescription drugs such as hydrocodone, oxycodone, morphine, and methadone used to treat both acute and chronic pain–overdose have quadrupled since 1999. To fill knowledge gaps and improve the country’s ability to fight the opioid epidemic, HHS is launching more than 12 new scientific studies on opioid misuse and pain treatment. It released a related report and inventory on the opioid misuse and pain treatment research being conducted or funded by its agencies, which will help stakeholders and external funders of research avoid unnecessarily duplicating research. In addition, HHS developed activities that support opioid prescriber education, and seeks comment on current HHS prescriber education and training programs and proposals that would augment ongoing HHS activities.
Elimination of potential financial incentive to prescribe opioids
In an advance release of its Proposed rule for the hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS), CMS suggested eliminating any potential financial incentive for doctors to prescribe opioids based on patient experience survey questions. The Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program ties payments to performance measures, including a pain management dimension. Providers and other stakeholders have told CMS that they are concerned about the pain management dimension putting pressure on staff to prescribe unnecessary opioids; the agency proposed removing the pain management dimension for purposes of the Hospital VBP Program “in an abundance of caution.” For more on the OPPS Proposed rule, see Patient-focused and physician-supporting changes proposed for OPPS and ASCs, Health Law Daily, July 7, 2016.