As naloxone prominence increase in opioid fight, so does price

The price of naloxone, a drug used to reverse the effects of an opioid overdose, has skyrocketed in the past few years. Despite complaints from lawmakers and national advocacy groups such as Harm Reduction Coalition, the price increases have come at a time when public health officials cite the record number of overdose deaths – more than 27,000 in the U.S. in 2014 – with almost 19,000 from prescription opioids and over 10,000 heroin-related, 16 and 28 percent increases from the previous year.

President Obama recently signed a law aimed at addressing the growing opioid crisis in the U.S. and naloxone is at the forefront of the conversation, as it is often the drug of choice to reverse the effects of opioids on the brain and can limit or stops a heroin or prescription opioid overdose. The Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act of 2016 increases the availability of naloxone, strengthens prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) by assisting states with monitoring and tracking prescription drug diversion, and expands prevention and educational efforts with teens and other adult populations.

The most common formulation of naloxone used by police departments, hospitals, and addiction advocacy organizations is made by Amphastar Pharmaceuticals, which raised concerns after it increased the list price of 10 injectable naloxone from $120 to $330 in October 2014. In the last decade, Hospira’s injectable dose has gone from 92 cents in 2005 to more than $15 in 2014. Meanwhile, Kaleo Pharma raised the price of its naloxone product, Evzio, several times in since 2015. In November 2015, the price went up to $375, followed by an increase to $1,875 in February 2016; the single-dose auto-injector price is now at $2,250.

According to Truven Health Analytics, the rise in price has been partly driven from the lack of competition. The price hikes jumped in frequency and volume in 2008 after several manufacturers stopped producing the drug, leaving Hospira and Amphastar as the sole manufacturers of naloxone. Mylan and Kaleo only introduced naloxone products in 2014, but only Mylan, Amphastar, and Hospira make the cheaper, injectable versions. Kaleo makes the auto-injector.

The demand for naloxone is not likely to decrease in the near future, as Congress is considering requiring that physicians co-prescribe the drug with every opioid prescription.